I thought that we could talk about fractions. So , for instance, one over two. Also known as one half. Okay, so another one would be two over five, or two fifths. And then there are more complicated ones,

like eighteen over forty-two, and, well, you know that there is something a little wrong here, which is that the top and the bottom, you can both divide them by two, and then you get that this is nine over twenty-one. And, oh, I’m not done. And so it’s three sevenths. I wanted to do this example because all the fractions I’m going to consider are going to be reduced like this. Namely, it’s going to be of the form p over q,

where p and q are integers, and they are what we call coprime,

namely that they have no common divisor. [Brady]: We’ve cancelled them

down as far as they can go. [Dr. Bonahon]: That’s completely correct, yes. And now, if you remember, with fractions you can do things: you can add them up, or you can multiply them. And multiplication is fairly easy because if I want to take, for instance, two over five, two fifths,

and I want to multiply it with three over seven, I take the two numbers on the top, I multiply them, and I take the two numbers on the bottom and I multiply them, and so that gives me six over thirty-five.

That’s pretty simple. However, I don’t know if you’ll remember this, but if you want to add them, I’m going to tell you

what it is NOT equal to. I have to put a big “not” like this. So it is NOT two plus three divided by five plus seven,

five over twelve. I hope you remember that

you’re NOT supposed to do that. So let me remind you of what you are supposed to do. You’re going to reduce them to a common denominator, which in this case will be five times seven. I just wanted to remind you of

what people told you you should always do. But we could ask ourselves, what if we decide

that this WAS the correct rule? [Brady]: We’re going to break the rules, are we? [Dr. Bonahon]: We’re going to break the rules, yes, and we’re going to venture in the brand new world. Because I don’t want to go against the other people, we’re going to create a new addition, and to remember it’s new, this plus,

I’m going to put a circle around it. Five over twelve. It’s a symbol that we mathematicians, we use a lot, every time we mean, “Well, it’s not quite what you think it is.” We could put a hat on top, we do things like that,

or a tilde. Okay, and so, let me do it with letters like this p and q. That will mean that p over q, funny addition, p-prime over q-prime is p plus p-prime divided by q plus q-prime. Probably you never heard of it, but it’s actually well-known among mathematicians, and it has a name, and that’s called, so I’m going to write, the Farey addition, named after John Farey, who was mostly known as a geologist in the end of the eighteenth century. My intention is to show you that this funny addition actually comes up in two very different contexts, the original one discovered by Farey and another one, which would be called the Ford circles. What we are going to do is that we’re going to list all possible fractions. There are a lot of numbers so we’re going to only to focus on the ones between zero and one. That’s going to shrink. So here is the number line, and I’m going to be between zero and one. And by the way, one is a fraction: it’s one over one. Zero is also a fraction: zero over one, There is one half, one fourth, three fourths, and then there is one third which is probably somewhere like here, Two thirds, somewhere like this -and of course, I can keep going for a long time because there are infinitely many numbers. So what I’m gong to do is that I’m going to stop and I’m gong to take the numbers p, q, so first of all between zero (including zero) and one, and then where q, well, I cannot go infinitely so I’m going to assume q is going to be less than a certain number, so let’s say 234. There is nothing special about 234. It’s just 2, 3, 4. I don’t have much imagination when picking numbers. So I’m going to do it, and I started doing it, and there are quite a few numbers like that, probably between twenty and forty thousand. So perhaps I’m not going to do it in front of you. I have a computer. And so I did it. [Brady]: That’s not twenty thousand fractions!

[Dr. Bonahon]: I only got a little piece of it, because when I use my computer I got pages and pages and pages and pages… So I got all these numbers between [119] over 81 and 103 over 154. If you think about it, it’s about two thirds. So one is just a little below and one is a little after, and actually there should be two thirds somewhere…

Ah yes, here. It’s a very small piece of the whole list. So we get all the numbers in that very small interval and they are in order. They come up in this order exactly. And so, that looks like — there doesn’t seem to be anything special about this list, right? You remember that funny addition where you add up the two numbers at the top and the two bottom? You see it here. Look, for instance: you take these three numbers here; look at the one in the middle. 148, well that’s exactly the sum of 123 and of 25. And then 225, that’s exactly the sum of 187 and 38. And you see that in many, many places. So let’s see if we can find another one like that. Okay. Look, hundred — these three, I mean.

103 plus 35, 138. 156 plus 53, 209. 31 plus 95, that’s 126. 47 for 144, 191. And it’s pretty clear that there are examples where this is not one of those Farey additions. Like, you have the ones where in the middle the term is way, way smaller. Look at this one here. If I take the sum of the two — the Farey sum of the two on the edges, so that [it] gives me 212 divided by 320, and on the paper it’s 53 over 80. That’s not the same, right? Well, except, wait a minute. You remember how I can simplify fractions? Look, clearly the top and the bottom I can divide by two. I can cancel out. There is also two as a factor here. I divide by two the top and the bottom (I’m going a little fast) — over eighty — hey hey! [Brady]: So that was a Farey sum.

[Dr. Bonahon]: That’s a Farey sum. And so, let me show you how to pick a Farey sum in this piece of paper. What you do is.. this. Every time I take three consecutive numbers here, then the one in the middle is the Farey sum of the two on the sides. And what’s amazing is that when I change my number, 234 here, if I take something else, like for instance if I take 200, then I’m losing this number, it will not be on my list anymore; however, the next — the one that is closest, that’s going to be this one probably, will still have this property. It’s very surprising, to some extent unbelievable, and it took a while for mathematicians to be able to devise a complete proof of that result. The one who did that was Cauchy, one of the great mathematicians of the nineteenth century. When we find something really surprising,

we want to know: Is this a coincidence, or is there a deep fact behind that? Or at least, is this always true? I’m going to do some geometry and construct circles. I’m going to use the number line that I had here, but here is the following recipe that I want to use: Whenever I see the number p over q, again where p and q have no common divisors, then I’m going to draw the circle which is tangent to the number line, which is above the number line, and whose diameter is.. well, I could use any formula, but my pinky tells me I should use one over q squared. Let’s do it. So, one half.

At the bottom I have two, q is equal to two, so I’m going to want one over two squared, namely one over four. So it sort of looks roughly like this. Let’s do one third here, one ninth — oh, this one I don’t completely know, but my pinky just told me that it touches like this. And then one quarter — my pinky is

better than my drawing skills. And then here, by the way, is one over one, I had to draw the circle of radius [diameter] one over one squared, namely one, it’s this big circle here, and it turns out that it’s going to look the same with this one here. And then I can keep going, but as you — I think I convinced you of one thing, which is that my drawing skills are not very good. But fortunately, I have my trusted computer. So, it’s much smaller than this. This is the circle going at zero over one, diameter one. The one going over one, one over one, diameter one, one, one, so these big circles are all above the integers, and then above the half integers I’m going to get a circle of radius [diameter] one quarter, and then above the multiples of one third, I don’t know if you can see — one third, I have a circle of radius [diameter] one ninth, and then it’s beginning to be really hard to see. I can also use my computer and, look, here there is one third and one half. I’m zooming in: one third, one half, and then it’s what you have in between. And you have that. And then you have more. And then you could go, I don’t know, like this, or how about here, between five over eleven and six over thirteen. And it keeps going. Okay. So it is funny that with my funny rules like this, all these circles, you see, they are tangent to each other. They touch, but they don’t overlap, and there is no space in between, they do touch. This is called the Ford Circle Packing. And actually, there is some geometry here that you can show. When you have two of these circles which touch each other, and then you have the number line here, there is a unique circle which touches the number line and these two circles here. Okay? That’s a little bit of a geometrical fact. Look, look look look, at this. So I was taking this one: eleven over twenty-four, seventeen over thirty-seven, and the one that touches these two circles and the number line, that’s.. oh my God, that’s twenty-eight over sixty-one! Eleven plus seventeen, that’s twenty-eight; twenty-four plus thirty-seven, that’s sixty-one. [Brady]: It’s — gah, what have you done?! It’s back!

[Dr. Bonahon]: It’s coming back! So we have these Farey additions

everywhere in this picture. Again, this is true for any three circles that touch each other like that in this whole picture, like this one here. This pattern is closely related to non-euclidean geometry. I cannot completely explain the details, but there is something deep behind that. …origin point. So you can deductively reason what happens here Okay Brady. So this big circle is this one and this circle is this one. Now what happens to this circle here? Well, again, we don’t have to measure anything This circle here touches the big circle, and touches this circle…

Does anyone have an idea of what program he used for making these graphs?

Respire Francis!

FUCKTION_OH YEAH_๐These comments just made my day! Not to mention Frenchy Mcfrenchman

'I thought that we could talk about frrractions.'

Great way to start a video. c:

More from this guy, please! ๐

๐ฆ๐ถ๐ฆ๐จ๐ฆ๐บ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ง๐ฑ๐ง๐ฒ๐ฆ๐ธ๐ง๐ด๐ง๐ถ๐จ๐จ๐จ๐ฝ๐จ๐ผ๐จ๐ป๐จ๐บ๐ฌ๐ต๐ช๐บ๐ช๐ญ๐ซ๐ด๐ฌ๐ฑ๐ฌ๐ฎ๐ฌ๐ฌ๐ซ๐ฏ๐ซ๐ฐ๐ฌ๐ซ๐ฌ๐ธ๐ฌ๐บ๐ญ๐ฐ๐ฎ๐ถ๐ฎ๐ด๐ฎ๐ฒ๐ฎ๐จ๐ฏ๐ช๐ฐ๐พ๐ฑ๐ธ๐ฑ๐ฐ๐ฒ๐ฉ๐ฒ๐ด๐ฒ๐ต๐ฒ๐ธ๐ณ๐ต๐ณ๐บ๐ณ๐ฟ๐ต๐ณ๐ต๐ท๐ท๐ช๐ธ๐ญ๐ธ๐ฝ๐น๐ฆ๐น๐จ๐น๐ซ๐น๐ป๐น๐ฐ๐บ๐ณ๐ป๐ฌ๐ป๐ฎ๐ผ๐ซ๐ผ๐ธ๐ฝ๐ฐ๐พ๐น

๐ณ๏ธโ๐๐น๐ธ๐ท๐ฌ๐ก๐ญ๐ฝ๐ฌ๐๐ฅ๐๐ผ๐ฟ๐พ๐ฝ๐ฒ๐ฑโจ๐จ๐ฅ๐ป๐๐๐ ๐๐โ๏ธ๐ฒ๐ฑ๐ผ๐จ๐ฐ๐ฃ๐ค๐

5:41 "I've got bitches and bitches and bitches and bitches"

Frrractions!

nah you can (a/b) + (c/d) = (a+c)/(b*d)

Cool of you to have Joseph Stalin on!

dommage qu'il n'y ait pas de version franรงaise haha

I would love to hear him talk about prrrime numbers.

This guy is super energetic about math. I'm glad he seems to genuinely enjoy it that much. I can't get that hype for math, but I can appreciate someone who does.

Would I be wrong in saying that each circle is touching an infinite amount of circles below it, if you keep zooming in? and that each zoom out is touching infinity + 1 circles? Thanks numberphile you guys are amazing.

Something very deep indeed. I would love to know more!

โI want to talk about frachhhions.โ

How to get your algebra teacher to hate youThe only thing this guy is missing is a beret.

I LOVING ZEE ACCENT !!

UN YAH !!

Any more videos with this guy?

I WOULD LOVE TO SEE: the computer program that allowed us to determine the Farey fractions and then produce the circles lieing on the number line. WOULD IT BE POSSIBLE to post that program in Python or Javascript?

I'll tell you he has one wise pinkie!

This guy's accent is wonderful

Interesting, but what's the point?

He is just doing an average.

I clicked because the guy reminded me of Stalin but I'm not disgusted with the content of the video

It looks like everyone was interested by Bonahon's accent more than by the math he does x)

I th-thought that we-w could tawk about FWAHKCHURNZ!

P plus p PIME over q plus q PIME

YAYY I LEARNED A WAY TO ADD FRACTIONS WITHOUT A COMMON DENOMINATOR!!!!!

ALL PUSSYBALL FRRRRAKTIONZ

I have never seen Professor Baguette on here before

i was about to nut but then the camera cut back to him so i felt bad and stopped

but then i

N A TanywayThat accent tho

Est il franรงais

Might want to put a small backwards "j" hook on those lowercase "q" since they look like "9".

Ok … that was amazing … but what's the math behind it?

Fantastic. I love this!

This was just funny enough I had to write a program to verify it. It's all true, or as near as you can tell using floating point math.

That Cauchy guy looks an awful lot like a certain Russian president…I clicked for the โstache

he looks like deadpool peter.

Talk about fRCHactions

Each circle would have two distinct circle that touch a pair of circles and the line. one below and "inside" and the bigger one the "leans" on them together.

J'aime tellement la faรงon dont il prononce "hundred".

This man should do a podcast.

As I see it this is the most authentic French accent of English ever spoken by a human being

I'm a simple man, I see Stalin and i click like

7:24

Thereโs also: 25/38 {Far+} 127/193 = 152/231, right next to your first triplet

11:20 Take a shot whenever he says the number 1

This dude needs to be more creative in how he writes his q's, since they totally look like 9s.

The visual pattern of tangent Ford circles and their relative size is quite similar to the way hyperbolic components line up along the hyperbolic component they are all connected to in the border of the Mandelbrot set.

whoaaaa!

Ouef

Fwwhhhhghhhhactions

fWRAKKtions

FสสสสสสสสสACTIONSp and q are "Not coprime" as in they are "relatively prime with each other" as in they have "no common divisors between p and q".

Why is Stalin teaching maths??

i just imagined some guy laughing hysterically at a random fraction popping up on his TV screen

A giggle gaggle that makes me laugh. Iโd call it faery or fairy magic a rebellious type of math, you are right it totally is magically funny. Fairy ๐งโโ๏ธ Mathematics.

Sounds incredibly French but looks indcredibly German

The Boulder is conflicted

I'm confused by people in the comments saying he's SO French. I thought he was German. The plaid shirt, the suspenders, even the mustache, they all look super German to me, in an almost offensively stereotypical way, like he's about to milk a cow or something. And his accent doesn't sound French to me at all, he's not even stressing the last syllables of the words.

That is coggect

oh im not done

the way he said it was lit just like FRANCE

Raise your hands, who else watches these just for the accents?

Farey addition is actually really useful for calculating your grade in a class. Say for instance your teacher/professor has 80% of you grade as tests, and 20% as homework. Your final grade will be = 80%*(1st test score, Farey-add 2nd test score… Farey-add last test score) +20%*(1st homework score Farey-add 2nd homework score… Farey-add last homework score)

I'm not sure what it is, but his accent is almost painful to listen to lol.

Mootiplication

best voice

You forgot to say q is nonzero

HKKKKKXXXXowever

So any number Farey multiplied by 2 would just be itself… Thatโs so dope. 2 is the identity element

There are many non-euclidean geometries. Which one is it?

What's the name of this operation?

I love his french accent ๐

These fractions are fascinating (*O*)

That is… Weird. And it even works on small values of q.

Whose here from RedpenBlackpen?

q can't be zero

Isn't a baseball player's batting average updated this way

(Hits over at bats)

Liszt all pussyball fwractshujln

I don't currently know the exact reason, but this is my favorite numberphile video.

It's just so satisfying when mathematics fit in together SO. WELL.

He looks like saddam hussein

I love circles ๐

Could be working in a winery in Bordeaux as well, but itโs better so…

Is it a group operation if the identity element is unique to each element in the set of quotients? There not being a single, universal identity element, I wouldn't think so.

I could have sworn that he was Jeremy Clarkson with a mustache

At 13:06, on second viewing:

"Oh,

circle_, I thought he said _soccerthe whole time!"888 comments count has been broken!

1+(30/8)+(30/8)+… and 1+(8/30)+(8/30)+… maintained in fraction are funny too =)

The way he says "prime" is incredible

99.99% comments : nationality of this guy

rest are rubbish like this one

Since this day, I understand why it's a shame to have a bad accent… I'm French and I want to apologize for all the person how heard me speak with this kind of accent… ๐ ๐ญ

No wonder why i keep moving in circles!!!

Itโs the Farey curse ๐๐๐

0:02 (your welcome)

Stalin

I request a follow up video where we sketch the proof of this amazing fact!