Anecdota

Laughter is the Best Medicine

The Encryption That Can’t Be Cracked: OTP


>>This episode of the Modern Rogue brought to you by NordVPN.>>Go to nordvpn.com/rogue and get 75% off a three year plan. Use the code, rogue! R-O-G-U-E
>>That’s a very big discount. It’s 2.99 a month
>>It’s huge!>>Also, you know what?
Heck, use that code, get a free month on us.>>Look at him.>>You’re welcome.
>>Yeah. When you were a kid, did you
ever create your own language?>>Yes, yes, and I’m not proud of it.>>Oh. Oh, really?>>I came up with my own sign language.>>Are you the Zodiac killer?>>No, me and my buddies
figured out, it’ll be like, “How about ‘can’ because
this looks like a can. “Can you play today? “That’s a sunrise.” [aggressively dismissive]
Just dumb, it’s dumb, I was a dumb kid. [through laughter]
>>This is so much better than I thought. [stifled laughing] I want to learn it and try
to communicate with you.
>>[bleep] you. [bleep] you.>>Like the ape in Congo.>>[beep] you. [laughter] [deep synthetic rumble] [electrical pop]
[gentle vinyl static] [rising chime]>>Okay, Brian, how familiar are you with methods of encryption
used during the Cold War?>>Dr. James Grime, he talked
to us about the Enigma machine. [gentle vinyl static]
Truly random algorithmic encoding and how it was cracked in part, because they realized that
you couldn’t eliminate the human element and, in general,
reports would probably end with the words “Heil, Hitler.” So, knowing that, that gave them a little
bit of a clue to figure out the algorithm from there and
that’s how Enigma got cracked. I know that there are book codes. I want to say that it was the bible. [papers sliding]
Benedict Arnold used a book code where he would just
send a bunch of numbers and the idea was page whatever, paragraph whatever, word whatever, and then–but the bible was the book that was the cipher to unlock everything.>>JASON: But you had to have a
specific version of the bible and everything, that’s the key of it is that both parties have
to have the exact same thing that they’re starting from.>>Correct. Right.>>And it’s interesting
that you say something about randomness, because that is the key to a lot of cryptography. What is truly random, right?>>And even now, it’s beguiling us, when it comes to computer stuff, we were only able to do
pseudorandom number generators on computers that still will have a bias to one side or the other. For example, you look at the spread of randomly generated numbers, and if it’s perfectly even,
that alone might be a bias. For example, in nature,
normal distribution of numbers, the first digit in a number, whether it’s the population of a city,
the mass of a planet, area of a forest, length of a river, they all tend to start with a one, [shuffling papers]
most often, then a two, then three,
then after that it falls off so starkly but just, in general,
those numbers tend to start with one, two, or three.>>Fascinating, because
truly random numbers are hard to generate, right? You have to in some cases
study like radioactive emissions to get truly random
numbers based on the decay. But even RNGs included in
common programming languages aren’t truly random. They’re based on algorithms
that people are creating.>>Right.
>>So if you can find the patterns in those, the non-randomness, that greatly increases the enemy’s ability to crack your code.>>So one time pads,
if I remember correctly, the stories were that it was
hard to get people to insist on actually doing a lottery-style bingo,
pulling out one thing– because the temptation is, fill this in with a bunch of numbers and then if you just use
your mind, you’ll be like, “I don’t know, six, seven,
five, two, six, one, one.” That seem a pretty random. We have a human bias that
we would never think to go, “One, one, one, one, one, one, one.” But, that might actually
happen if your truly randomly grabbing balls out of a bin.>>Exactly, and so if
you have a one time pad that is a very lo-fi
method of communicating with someone in the field. One time pads were used
a lot during World War 2. They came about in the late 19th century, but they been refined as everyone started to realize just how important truly random numbers were in cryptography.>>So we talked a little bit about this on the number stations. [gentle vinyl static]
What you want is the ability
to say something out loud, that the whole world can hear but will only have meaning to one person. And so one time pads are
basically theoretically perfectly random collections
of numbers and letters that act as a key, such that only two people have it in the world, and it’s only active for a particular time, or on a particular day,
at a particular appointment, and that both parties use
it to encode and then decode and then destroy it, and then nobody has
any frame of references to figure out what was said.>>Exactly, now the one time pad key will look something like this, [feint rapid digital whirring]
where we have a bunch of different messages. ♪ [mellow ethereal beat]
Now, I don’t know who generated this ♪ [mellow ethereal beat]
or exactly how random these are. And again the more random they are, the more airtight it’s going to be. But you have a number of
these messages, right? Now you’re only going to use one of these and your only going to use it once.>>Okay so, forgive me,
this doesn’t look like a cipher. Are these actual message that are encoded?>>No, these are not messages,
this is your key. When someone out in the
field sends you a message, you’re going to use your first key.>>Okay.>>And then once you’ve decoded
that message that they sent you, [fire whoosh]
you burn this.>>Yeah, but how do I translate this random bunch of
letters into something else?>>Okay, we have a
little cheat sheet here.>>BRIAN: Okay.
>>JASON: Now there’s nothing
special about this, right? Its just an alphanumeric grid. You got A through 9, here. And then A through 9,
going vertically as well.
>>BRIAN: Sure.>>JASON: This is just to help you decrypt. Here’s a message [keyboard clacking]
I have for you.
>>Right.>>Using this key.>>The very first one, message one?>>Exactly, now this key,
you have to have a copy and I have to have a copy.>>Correct.>>No one else should have a copy, right? And so the trickiest part,
to this entire thing is getting this to you, and making sure that it’s not intercepted.>>Okay.
>>Because if it’s intercepted,
its done. Right?>>Sure. Oh I get it, I get it,
so since we have this grid, that’s A through 9 and this
grid that’s A through 9, and this is all laid out, my guess is, we combine,
what you send me with what I know.>>Exactly, you’ve got to start
from the right side and the right direction, right? So here, you’re going to start with D, because your first one here
on your first message is D.>>BRIAN: Got it.
So you begin with the one time pad.>>JASON: So you’ve got your D here, and then go over to J here, actually.>>BRIAN: [surprised] Oh,
that’s not what I thought at all. Okay.>>JASON: Yeah, because if you look,
this one has a little handy sending and
receiving code right here.>>BRIAN: I see, so this is the code,
we go to the input and then we go up and what
we find is the letter. So in this case, first
letter has to be G.>>JASON: Correct.
>>BRIAN: Okay, the L from the next one,
and we go down to L, and we’re going to go over to the next part of our
message which is 2. Then I go up and it’s R.>>JASON: Correct.
>>BRIAN: All right, okay.
There you go, to I… Grime–Grimey?
Frank Grimey Grimes. U.
>>JASON: I think I made this one too easy.>>I go up, I get L. Oh dude! [laughs]
>>Right?>>All right hold on.>>You just got an order 66, my friend. [laughter]>>BRIAN: And then there’s another L. All right, it’s clearly [keyboard clacking]
[speech elongated to the timing of the text]
grilled cheese.>>Correct, take a look at this and note what I think is
kind of remarkable about it. About such a really pretty
simple cipher, right?>>Yeah sure.>>We’ve got J2VUOS,
and so we’ve got L for U.
>>And then L again.>>And then L for an O. And then you’ve got a double E. Because double letters,
whenever you’re cracking a cipher, double letters are something– or individual letters.
>>Those are big clues.>>Those are big clues, but in this case, it doesn’t work because you got two Es represented by a G,
and then a 2.>>And you didn’t even have
to be clever and say like, “Well, I’m going to use a different
way to do an L this time.” You just followed the algorithm and you’ve got what looks
like total random nonsense in order to produce that.>>Exactly, now you have cracked this one using grilled cheese.
So this, right here…>>Is now burned.
>>This is done. The guy broadcasting the
encoded message to you over a number station and everything, he will destroy this,
and you will destroy this. Next time you get a message
from him, you use this. Its crucial, again, that this is random that no one gets their hands on this and that you do not reuse this.>>Dude that’s fantastic,
this is a diabolical solution that it does seem too
have some limitations. Both parties have to have
the exact same one time pad. They have to be synchronized, if either party have their
pad copied or stolen, then you’re going to have a bad day. I suppose also,
you’re fighting the fact that the one time pad,
it has to be absolutely crucial that it’s truly random. You can’t rely on any human biases.>>Well listen, all codes are
built by people, right? So they’re only airtight as
the person who defined it, even if it’s generated by a computer, it’s using an algorithm that
was written by a person. So there’s going to be problems with it but this is still one of
the easiest, most lo-fi and airtight ones that you can find. And what I love about it is that,
anybody can do it. We just did it right now over
the course of like ten minutes. I think we should build a
secret communication network.>>That sounds like work,
but yes, fine. Fine. It’ll all say “grilled cheese.” [laughter]
Illuminati, confirmed.>>The “Grilled Cheese Association.”>>Hearthstone. [laughter]>>Its all just Hearthstone tips, our entire secret network.
>>Shhh! You’re going to
ruin my new podcast, stop.>>Brian, you have a new
experience with Nord, you want to talk about it?
Let’s talk about it. [off guard laughter]>>We come out here on the deck and we just talk about Nord sometimes.>>So I usually read my
news from Google news. That’s the first thing I check everyday, but I didn’t realize
that it categorizes that to your location, right?>>Yes it does.
>>So, because I’m like, “attach me somewhere,” and sometimes the fastest
server is like in England is what it was this morning. So I saw all of the American
news through the lens of people living in England. They keep saying like, “What candidate Jeep Jop
says about Donald Trump…” And I’m like, “Who’s candidate Jeep Jock?” And I realize that they have
elections out in England.>>They do.>>It was amazing to be
automatically fed news from a totally different perspective.>>Yeah you don’t have to hunt for it. You just select and say, “Oh, I’m from this part of the globe.” And it says, “Okay, here’s what
your internet experience is like when “you’re in Scotland,
when you’re in Iceland, “when you’re in South America.”>>It’s fantastic and plus,
there is, of course, the security stuff. The only VPN to get five out of five,
perfect score at PC Mag.>>And it got through
the Great Wall of China. That’s not even right.>>The firew–>>The Great Firewall of China. I was about to say,
you’re thinking of David Copperfield.>>Yeah, that’s what it is. So, go to Nordvpn.com/rogue That’s R-O-G-U-E and get 75% off a three year plan It’s 2.99 per month and…>>Use that URL and you
get a extra month free. How about that.
>>How can you say no?>>Pretty rad, right?>>Don’t even tell me if you’re going to say no.
>>Who’s super cool, who’s your hook up? Come on. Who loves some VPNs?
>>And NordVPN. It’s us, and NordVPN.>>Just keep you doing you.
>>Yeah, we got you.>>Yeah. — CC BY BIZARRE MAGIC — [quietly]
>>JASON: Take your clothes off. [muffled laughter]
>>God dammit.>>It feels good, you can just surf, and not have to worry about a thing.
>>It’s the internet, it’s not appropriate.>>I do it.
>>It’s not going to be good. [radio static and wind] [defensively]
>>In my own home. I mean in Starbucks. Not the same Starbucks,
you’ll get kicked out. Okay, it’s a bus station. [chuckles]
It’s a bus station. [ashamed but relieved]
Truth time.

100 thoughts on “The Encryption That Can’t Be Cracked: OTP

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  2. Okay, it's not that I'm too lazy to decipher that message… it's just that my screen size is too small and my eyes hurt too much. I got through the first couple of words before my poor eyes started to explode…

  3. radioactive decay is seen as random because we haven't found any pattern in it and we don't know all variables that may come in in to it. it is possible that some variables haven't been discovered yet

  4. I once took a cryptological mathematics class, and after talking about how to crack the Vigenere cipher, the teacher told us about this perfect cipher called the “One Time Pad,” that’s so strong that it’s even been mathematically proven to be impossible to crack. And even RSA, which is what banks and militaries use is still theoretically crackable, even if near impossible to. Of course, we then asked how that’s possible, and that it obviously had to have a downside. She then said, “It’s called the one time pad because you can only use it once per key, or else it’s just like any other Vigenere cipher.” It was really funny to see Brian’s reactions to a lot of the stuff here.

  5. I’m surprised you guys didn’t talk about how the only way to get truly random results is with quantum states. The easiest way to do this is with radioactive decay, because the exact intervals and strengths at a given time are truly random. You also can use a quantum computer to generate true random numbers.

  6. The cool part is that you can have 2 pseudo random machines that produce the OTP key, which are synchronized…….. and it can be something as small as a thumb drive, or can be made to look like a normal app in a cellphone.

  7. One time these were in fact cracked was by the US governments operation Vernona which exposed the most prolific soviet agent in history known as agent Homer at the time. It was cracked cause during the winter war the fins captured an NKVD division and all their onetime pads which had been mass produced and weren't unique at all because of the need for a massive amount of covert codes

  8. From what I remember from a book on ciphers and codes I had in middle school, the Vigenere Cipher (the one used in this episode), actually isn't all that secure. Don't get me wrong, It's very secure to the average person, like myself, but to someone with enough experience there is a method of approximation that can get decently close to deciphering a message. I can't remember what it was though.
    Obviously it's a lot easier to crack if you encrypt the message poorly, though. To encrypt the message well use a random key, make the key as long if not longer than the message itself, block your enciphered message so the word lengths don't remain the same as before, keep the message short, etc. All of which are done in this video. It's also possible to make the cipher more secure by rearranging the reference alphabets. So instead of making the top alphabet "abcdefg…", make it "dfgcbae…". Same for the side alphabet. Taking these steps makes the Vigenere cipher more secure, and now that I think about it, it seems like it should be impossible to decode as is, but I seem to recall that there are ways to decode it. And not even with a computer. I could be wrong on that part though.

    Also, coincidentally enough, just this week I finished making a spreadsheet that could encipher and decipher a vigenere encrypted message with given alphabets, input message, and key. Unfortunately, I made it so that it uses just letters and no numbers, so it's annoyingly useless in deciphering that last message in the video.
    Edit: Hmm, Hidden in plain sight, much will be told.

  9. One time pad encrypted messages are like library of babel: the message can be every combination of words within the number of letters it contains. So, you can try to brute force it and find a message that makes sense, but it's not necessarily the real message.

  10. Whoa. I kid you not, just today at work I was working on implementing OTP. Although, in this case, OTP stood for "One Time Password" (essentially the same concept, though). But it was interesting to get home after working on "OTP" all day only to see "OTP" in my subscription box.

  11. WATCH ME COWARDS

    HIDDEN IN PLAIN SIGHT CODE REMAINS UNSOLVED
    CLUES COME IN PAIRS SIX IN ALL
    1 CODE AND 1 PLACE TELL YOU THE GOAL
    FRESHEN UP ON BASE 2 AND MUCH WILL BE TOLD

  12. Thumbnail:

    KEY 3

    IET8YDOY3RF9D1

    WEA6R1KWP5FSA0

    WATCH ME COWARDS

    End Scene:

    KEY 2

    SQQVQ 0211K ETQF7 XERXM KCIG9 9RN7B CGFMU 79

    LINSM NUOM9 ELDXZ R78V8 H81CX 9JAPR ZY1B9 36

    HIDDEN IN PLAIN SIGHT CODE REMAINS UNSOLVED

    UPLI6 1UGBM 77D1Y L74AY GWAF

    SE1EO ZG47E USDTH 3PWNQ 3WZ4

    CLUES COME IN PAIRS SIX IN ALL

    QK0Q6 HNZAK XZYOV F0SWS BDBYB EN9

    ZIMN2 HAWJ5 MZWKC BPH8E RU4U5 0NY

    1 CODE AND 1 PLACE TELL YOU THE GOAL

    DJ8N6 P6BB3 XRX5S L6CDN 10LZC PSO9Q SJP

    8245Z LTRWP KQXNO T6ZAB HYED4 EHN57 E8M

    FRESHEN UP ON BASE 2 AND MUCH WILL BE TOLD

  13. I made a cipher earlier this year that has remained uncracked. If you wanna try it here's a link to the reddit post I made.

    https://www.reddit.com/r/codes/comments/b6neez/anomalous_punk_cipher_caesar_meets_math/

  14. I'd always kind of wondered how One-Time Pads work. This basically explains everything and now I want to write a program to use it.

    So the OTP can't be cracked because there's nothing to crack. As Jason explains in the episode, each individual letter uses a different encryption key, which is only ever used once and then thrown away.

    Normally, you use an encryption key for an entire message or to identify a person (see PGP signatures… actually that could be a fun episode), but if the key gets compromised somehow, then that entire channel is compromised.

  15. Keep this type of videos coming! Also if anyone wants to build their own enigma machine by using Arduino, details can be found on https://github.com/Naktrem/DigitalizedEnigmaMachineReconstruction it is open source.

  16. I've managed to decode the message at the end, but I haven't figured out anything from there. I also decoded the thumbnail, but it doesn't seem relevant. In case it helps, here's the keys in text form:
    OTP Key 1

    DLNJD OJKKC Y3HU9 CEXQA CAE5W F1ADA Q1HZX 7JF4S V3SNX SZM0V 612SK R8TK8 KI1M3 WLPH5 VYU4R YI591 FSKMO GK7W6 0CFQ0 QU507 HEJ3U HATZX HYOGG NZNAW 01Z1S RPFYD 7GWX3 HZWKG HBGQO CDPS9 NDWYG 7HDWY 57LOH BXM4Q 97XVK JVF8B A72X3 7XT1S IBHUZ DI01C XCOFU 8BOPG DW3JY PX5BW BO1KI XMXEZ N8MDO K9Q8R NKHYJ 9L73K YOY98 AGDOF 7L2GA Y0GVP ZHWY7 MF1R7 ZVNKQ WP64F 1T34O OMGU0 DIPYQ J61ZB T2GNH CNLI6 1V3Q5 F0YHA FYWG5 6DEZK I6DWS G2KC1 T5SF6 ADTRC 282EF 3IFSJ GRRLG K8T1M 80OJC U07P1 ZSFFQ WOZ9Q

    ОТР Key 2

    LINSM NUOM9 ELDXZ R78V8 H81CX 9JAPR ZY1B9 36SE1 EOZG4 ZEUSD TH3PW NQ3WZ 4ZIMN 2HAWJ 5MZWK CBPH8 ERU4U 50NY8 245ZL TRWPK QXNOT 6ZABH YED4E HN57E 8MTUV XZ8VT DLQD5 OSVBO 6YGRF IWCTO WIO0V GGDSV HW7B5 XD9IS 9NBKX W8K1K NE531 U3MI3 7B4RD 2V7PB 2KGAB K0K5V P1V5P IW0Si XCD2U M8P72 PCXK1 WX3MB LNNPF F1ZGA TK2M4 FTWOE I1RFX 2FN14 PORN0 HKM2S DSQOI KY7A4 TQN9S XFVY8 IOIM3 E4JBS CH1ZQ B7E0T LSIF7 8L126 IPK2P HP6W6 C3BLP 82FMC PXYMI SIMOJ 6S92P VF543 5145E IO4GQ I2CR6 KASTW ATROL 0XYIB

    OTP Key 3

    WEA6R 1KWP5 FSA0I J6XCO 09LSO 0LJKR B5R21 UZ05C EKE70 BHWZ0 W3KZ6 U09ZW 21FFO 5O83N V8IGV 17355 O9OXG N65AO BCNWT 65RBY 4KYUG IPAUV 73HE7 858GA 7ZOHG KICRB CHWMU 3EH1S QGCUG F7158 T1Q1L XNCIN H55BJ KLKWQ V02GN WTSLT E5AOX YRKOB EKUX9 MINSF XDBR5 8YPNM 5XV7S 6V3XS UBXIM C113M SWRM0 UHWQ9 V5D59 IH20S HYS3P NOH5J 58UQM V3Z6M 7DBSQ T2VF3 HMSFA P5Y0S GQ84E 9FUIF A9REK VM45U XNKB2 7CGL4 XZQHW 3CXND 33SCB HRJXM GA4PA 2VSVB VDDCF 4FFFS X9FVJ 4WKQO SSB01 VP3UU 3MFMJ ZOZMA 33DEI DUAB1

    OTP Key 4

    KJ6CJ 532DB KANR4 NA8UG U58T0 WIVII FM587 IKS05 4L5BH USN74 CSCVY 3D5FW N7QNQ 5CI56 OHY1E MTHQ3 I9EN5 A8L7V HRFK7 3F6JP WOZLR 3NEJF 38RBU E2QC2 ZVRZV LI639 B22T3 BTTU5 U9FLF SLN7K VDR1X TKQY2 0DE6C V11MM RKX3W 1GKAA 0JW7I YLEFD HFKP7 E1Q0K 6E2Z6 10KL4 ILF7I YH88D AUQPQ G4NSS 63HJN A7MBY U809Z TDJI1 VTR0Q B4LMD 5GTH9 J2UJT YY7RV LYX17 IDPAR SD6K3 G5B5P GYKQ7 NSY27 Q57UU 7HOB8 V3WRM QP70O MHUED 0V4ZT D59JO WZGXR 1QSCQ RDLLH WEVK4 H3JO6 MXNJ3 0V33D UW800 NBJX5 P3GXY GV9MJ 2ZAUW

    OTP Key 5

    6USQ9 19CRQ 2K03V UG1XK MZTSR LG7BS 0WQWN OWA2O CQ28A FYK1C 7JHIM SEUQ1 1B52D A5WRY 2Q8RB MEELM 75ODI R5JLO 52JL2 FYS4H JIKCF CHYOQ 4565H ILBGY OAXOM U99FW BD9FY ZZPFI 1N13J HQS8A 3FKR8 BVLOX WQ4QI 8XJLY YWM7R V8H06 Y5FIF QL45U SCECT F4OBE VQ5R3 35ULN LFXGI DKQLD LWFS7 EAGHY JJ3A5 GPB52 TDCS5 QHBK3 9CPZQ TLH96 GLF45 1GXGF CLGY0 7RTHI IR60C BDBGA JVG2Y GCLGY DYBZ6 YV0R0 DYYD3 MFF4W U3714 P3HD6 MU0CR NPDEX ZOFNI OSO9Y LG0CU 49B4R 63ZAG 16N7O I2FOV W0MF8 FH51G 1L35D 5FXCL RNS3O

  17. The other quality that a one time pad MUST have is that the pad must be as long or longer than the message that is sent. If not, then it becomes a Vigenere cipher instead, and if the message is longer than the pad and the users cycle through it multiple times, it can be quite easy to determine the key using letter frequency analysis alone (it's not a ONE TIME pad anymore, you know?) This was actually done on some occasions when users weren't given new pads and simply reused old ones. Again, the "one time" part of one time pad is vital.

  18. I remember statistics class in the 90's. Because the internet wasn't really a thing, and computers are as bad as people at generating true randomness – we had to buy a book (same sort of size as an exercise book) filled with just random numbers. The fact they could be used as a One Time Pad did come up in class.

  19. codded message from end:
    hidden in plain sight code remains unsolved. clues come in pairs six in all. 1 code and one place tell you the goal. freshen up on base 2 and much will be told.

  20. Me: Looks at title "Hmm, it would be a good opportunity for a Nord VPN spons-
    Brian: "This episode is sponsored by Nord VPN"

  21. Ya' killing me! I've spent WAAAAAAAY too long trying to figure this code out. The first layer is simple enough if not a little time-consuming (regretting not writing some code to figure it out for me rather than doing it manually…). Finding those extra clues is not going well though. I feel like you guys did an episode that touched on binary at some stage, but I can't for the life of me figure out which one?!?! Hmmmm, good play boys, good play!

  22. Did anyone decode the OTP message 10:43? I'[m kinda curious what it says, but not willing to put in the 30 or so minutes it would take to find out.

  23. Assuming that this method does not code word breaks, some information can be inferred by the length of words. It also does not change the overall length of the message.

  24. Set Your Pins to B-2, and here is your message: 12.11.2.25.14.11.18.16.23.3.25.

     BE SURE TO DRINK YOUR OVALTINE

  25. Well, my being a software dev got the better of me. I wrote a Perl script to decode the message at the end. I think it would have been faster to use the cheatsheet and solve by hand rather than write code to generate it.

    Of course, things would have gone faster if I could have copied and pasted the OTP and the secret message rather than take screenshots and type manually.

    I'm more than a little scared about what I might need Binary for with these guys…

  26. How to do a modern rogue intro:
    Person 1: have you ever done a weirdly specific random thing?
    Person 2: reluctantly answers 'yes'
    Person 1: laughs
    Person 2: explains what they specifically did

  27. You forgot a few things fill upp the spaces with the letter X dont use seperations / spaces and in advance agree to a codeword that only you and the recepient know that you ad at each beginning or ending of a message that so even if the one time pad got compromised you know that your are talking to the right person by indentifying the codeword if not sended you know your network has been compromised .

  28. I would love to take that NordVPN deal but you have to pay the whole year up front and i dont have that kind of money right now.

  29. If I recall correctly, some number stations had some of their messages decoded because they supposedly got lazy and were re-using OTP keys. Of course it could have just as well been intentional.

  30. 10:33. Don't take your clothes off. No offense, I'm sure you are damned sexy to some folks, but not this individual. To each their own. lol.

  31. when I was in 7th or 8th grade, the science textbook showed how certain groups of three nucleotides corresponded to specific amino acids. so I started making a similar code that used a pool of five letters instead of DNA's four. this yielded 125 possible results where as if I had gone with four, I would have had only 64

  32. Great episode! Is LearningSelfReliance.com supposed to forward directly to a prepper YouTube channel? I don't see anything about codes or encryption there.

  33. Great video guys! Thanks for the link! I really like the animations for the cheat-sheet. They made it much easier to understand how it works.

    My number generator is open-source https://github.com/lrnselfreliance/one_time_pad/blob/master/otp_server.py Its super simple. It should be secure enough for any purpose, so long as you're not an active target of some large government, haha.

  34. I just saw the original code pop up on the screen and in my head went “yeah thats enough letters for “grilled cheese”

  35. OTP can be mathematically proven to be unbreakable. That's because it could be any message of a given length depending on the secret pad. So clever agencies would also pad their messages to a set length.

    A message could decode to any of the following and without the pad, each is equally plausible

    Grilled Cheese XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    Await instructions XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    Operation Osprey 08-15-2019 17:45 XXXXXXXXXXXX
    You are compromised – Attempt escape – Going Dark

    There are difficulties with OTP that make it impractical. You mentioned that there must be a secure channel to deliver pads. The other difficulty is that each message uses an amount of pad space equal to the message length, and running out of pad space can be a real concern.

  36. A lot of respect to you Brian, for respecting who and what Grant Thompson did not only as a youtuber but also as a friend
    Thank you
    May he Rest In Peace

    (A part of the journey is the end) RDJ

  37. Tootally unrelated, where do you find voice clips of someone saying numbers and letters? Just rip 'em from an audio book?

  38. What you were saying about the lottery actually reminded me of an experience the other day that I had.

    I had my phone out, and I started playing music from one of my playlists, and after I hit play, I noticed that it wasn't set to Random, so I turned that on. Six songs later, and I'd noticed that it'd played all 8 Siousxie and the Banshees songs in the playlist in a row. Obviously, I assumed that it'd justed played down the list in order, until I looked, and saw that it was playing randomly. It just happened to randomly choose to play those 8 songs first out of the 200 in the list.

  39. The sign used by Brian for "today" is actually very similar with the sign used in brazilian sign language for "morning", because it represents the sunrise, only diference is the hand configuration: in bsl it is with the thumb touching the index finger, like an ok sign

  40. This could be improved by pairing it up with a fountain pen filled with Noodler's Blue Ghost ink. Why that ink? It's waterproof, write the message on the envelope instead of the letter. They won't see that coming LOL
    EDIT: if you want to make a random OTP by hand, use a bag of scrabble pieces. Dip your hand in and record the letters.

  41. i just had a test on cryptography in it security and i fucked up the one time pad questions if only i had the bell rung to get the fucking notifications i would have got some more points

  42. If anyone needs help reading the thumbnail/video, it says in fine print on the thumbnail to use key 3. The text is iet8ydoy3rf9di and the key is wea6r1kwp5fsa0.

  43. A desktop computer can generate random numbers from human input. The exact timing between keystrokes, for example, is unpredictable. I believe they also incorporate numbers from hardware events (e.g. exactly how long a disk read takes, for example). This works because if you add two random numbers together modulo some maximum value (such as the maximum value that the computer holds in one integer) then you get a number that is more random than either number.

  44. We as humans also fail to grasp the nature of randomness. If I remember correctly Spotify had to change the way their random algorythm worked because people complained that songs were repeated back to back, when in reality that's to be expected from a randomize feature.

  45. A quick clarification:
    What make pseudo-randomness different from true randomness is not its origin (like the human who built the algorithm), but the fact the such algorithms run on deterministic computers, and a deterministic machine can't create true randomness.
    The bugs or errors in the algorithm would be sources of weakness in the pseudo-random data.

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