>>This episode of the Modern Rogue brought to you by NordVPN.>>Go to nordvpn.com/rogue and get 75% off a three year plan. Use the code, rogue! R-O-G-U-E
>>That’s a very big discount. It’s 2.99 a month
>>It’s huge!>>Also, you know what?
Heck, use that code, get a free month on us.>>Look at him.>>You’re welcome.
>>Yeah. When you were a kid, did you
ever create your own language?>>Yes, yes, and I’m not proud of it.>>Oh. Oh, really?>>I came up with my own sign language.>>Are you the Zodiac killer?>>No, me and my buddies
figured out, it’ll be like, “How about ‘can’ because
this looks like a can. “Can you play today? “That’s a sunrise.” [aggressively dismissive]
Just dumb, it’s dumb, I was a dumb kid. [through laughter]
>>This is so much better than I thought. [stifled laughing] I want to learn it and try
to communicate with you.
>>[bleep] you. [bleep] you.>>Like the ape in Congo.>>[beep] you. [laughter] [deep synthetic rumble] [electrical pop]
[gentle vinyl static] [rising chime]>>Okay, Brian, how familiar are you with methods of encryption
used during the Cold War?>>Dr. James Grime, he talked
to us about the Enigma machine. [gentle vinyl static]
Truly random algorithmic encoding and how it was cracked in part, because they realized that
you couldn’t eliminate the human element and, in general,
reports would probably end with the words “Heil, Hitler.” So, knowing that, that gave them a little
bit of a clue to figure out the algorithm from there and
that’s how Enigma got cracked. I know that there are book codes. I want to say that it was the bible. [papers sliding]
Benedict Arnold used a book code where he would just
send a bunch of numbers and the idea was page whatever, paragraph whatever, word whatever, and then–but the bible was the book that was the cipher to unlock everything.>>JASON: But you had to have a
specific version of the bible and everything, that’s the key of it is that both parties have
to have the exact same thing that they’re starting from.>>Correct. Right.>>And it’s interesting
that you say something about randomness, because that is the key to a lot of cryptography. What is truly random, right?>>And even now, it’s beguiling us, when it comes to computer stuff, we were only able to do
pseudorandom number generators on computers that still will have a bias to one side or the other. For example, you look at the spread of randomly generated numbers, and if it’s perfectly even,
that alone might be a bias. For example, in nature,
normal distribution of numbers, the first digit in a number, whether it’s the population of a city,
the mass of a planet, area of a forest, length of a river, they all tend to start with a one, [shuffling papers]
most often, then a two, then three,
then after that it falls off so starkly but just, in general,
those numbers tend to start with one, two, or three.>>Fascinating, because
truly random numbers are hard to generate, right? You have to in some cases
study like radioactive emissions to get truly random
numbers based on the decay. But even RNGs included in
common programming languages aren’t truly random. They’re based on algorithms
that people are creating.>>Right.
>>So if you can find the patterns in those, the non-randomness, that greatly increases the enemy’s ability to crack your code.>>So one time pads,
if I remember correctly, the stories were that it was
hard to get people to insist on actually doing a lottery-style bingo,
pulling out one thing– because the temptation is, fill this in with a bunch of numbers and then if you just use
your mind, you’ll be like, “I don’t know, six, seven,
five, two, six, one, one.” That seem a pretty random. We have a human bias that
we would never think to go, “One, one, one, one, one, one, one.” But, that might actually
happen if your truly randomly grabbing balls out of a bin.>>Exactly, and so if
you have a one time pad that is a very lo-fi
method of communicating with someone in the field. One time pads were used
a lot during World War 2. They came about in the late 19th century, but they been refined as everyone started to realize just how important truly random numbers were in cryptography.>>So we talked a little bit about this on the number stations. [gentle vinyl static]
What you want is the ability
to say something out loud, that the whole world can hear but will only have meaning to one person. And so one time pads are
basically theoretically perfectly random collections
of numbers and letters that act as a key, such that only two people have it in the world, and it’s only active for a particular time, or on a particular day,
at a particular appointment, and that both parties use
it to encode and then decode and then destroy it, and then nobody has
any frame of references to figure out what was said.>>Exactly, now the one time pad key will look something like this, [feint rapid digital whirring]
where we have a bunch of different messages. ♪ [mellow ethereal beat]
Now, I don’t know who generated this ♪ [mellow ethereal beat]
or exactly how random these are. And again the more random they are, the more airtight it’s going to be. But you have a number of
these messages, right? Now you’re only going to use one of these and your only going to use it once.>>Okay so, forgive me,
this doesn’t look like a cipher. Are these actual message that are encoded?>>No, these are not messages,
this is your key. When someone out in the
field sends you a message, you’re going to use your first key.>>Okay.>>And then once you’ve decoded
that message that they sent you, [fire whoosh]
you burn this.>>Yeah, but how do I translate this random bunch of
letters into something else?>>Okay, we have a
little cheat sheet here.>>BRIAN: Okay.
>>JASON: Now there’s nothing
special about this, right? Its just an alphanumeric grid. You got A through 9, here. And then A through 9,
going vertically as well.
>>BRIAN: Sure.>>JASON: This is just to help you decrypt. Here’s a message [keyboard clacking]
I have for you.
>>Right.>>Using this key.>>The very first one, message one?>>Exactly, now this key,
you have to have a copy and I have to have a copy.>>Correct.>>No one else should have a copy, right? And so the trickiest part,
to this entire thing is getting this to you, and making sure that it’s not intercepted.>>Okay.
>>Because if it’s intercepted,
its done. Right?>>Sure. Oh I get it, I get it,
so since we have this grid, that’s A through 9 and this
grid that’s A through 9, and this is all laid out, my guess is, we combine,
what you send me with what I know.>>Exactly, you’ve got to start
from the right side and the right direction, right? So here, you’re going to start with D, because your first one here
on your first message is D.>>BRIAN: Got it.
So you begin with the one time pad.>>JASON: So you’ve got your D here, and then go over to J here, actually.>>BRIAN: [surprised] Oh,
that’s not what I thought at all. Okay.>>JASON: Yeah, because if you look,
this one has a little handy sending and
receiving code right here.>>BRIAN: I see, so this is the code,
we go to the input and then we go up and what
we find is the letter. So in this case, first
letter has to be G.>>JASON: Correct.
>>BRIAN: Okay, the L from the next one,
and we go down to L, and we’re going to go over to the next part of our
message which is 2. Then I go up and it’s R.>>JASON: Correct.
>>BRIAN: All right, okay.
There you go, to I… Grime–Grimey?
Frank Grimey Grimes. U.
>>JASON: I think I made this one too easy.>>I go up, I get L. Oh dude! [laughs]
>>Right?>>All right hold on.>>You just got an order 66, my friend. [laughter]>>BRIAN: And then there’s another L. All right, it’s clearly [keyboard clacking]
[speech elongated to the timing of the text]
grilled cheese.>>Correct, take a look at this and note what I think is
kind of remarkable about it. About such a really pretty
simple cipher, right?>>Yeah sure.>>We’ve got J2VUOS,
and so we’ve got L for U.
>>And then L again.>>And then L for an O. And then you’ve got a double E. Because double letters,
whenever you’re cracking a cipher, double letters are something– or individual letters.
>>Those are big clues.>>Those are big clues, but in this case, it doesn’t work because you got two Es represented by a G,
and then a 2.>>And you didn’t even have
to be clever and say like, “Well, I’m going to use a different
way to do an L this time.” You just followed the algorithm and you’ve got what looks
like total random nonsense in order to produce that.>>Exactly, now you have cracked this one using grilled cheese.
So this, right here…>>Is now burned.
>>This is done. The guy broadcasting the
encoded message to you over a number station and everything, he will destroy this,
and you will destroy this. Next time you get a message
from him, you use this. Its crucial, again, that this is random that no one gets their hands on this and that you do not reuse this.>>Dude that’s fantastic,
this is a diabolical solution that it does seem too
have some limitations. Both parties have to have
the exact same one time pad. They have to be synchronized, if either party have their
pad copied or stolen, then you’re going to have a bad day. I suppose also,
you’re fighting the fact that the one time pad,
it has to be absolutely crucial that it’s truly random. You can’t rely on any human biases.>>Well listen, all codes are
built by people, right? So they’re only airtight as
the person who defined it, even if it’s generated by a computer, it’s using an algorithm that
was written by a person. So there’s going to be problems with it but this is still one of
the easiest, most lo-fi and airtight ones that you can find. And what I love about it is that,
anybody can do it. We just did it right now over
the course of like ten minutes. I think we should build a
secret communication network.>>That sounds like work,
but yes, fine. Fine. It’ll all say “grilled cheese.” [laughter]
Illuminati, confirmed.>>The “Grilled Cheese Association.”>>Hearthstone. [laughter]>>Its all just Hearthstone tips, our entire secret network.
>>Shhh! You’re going to
ruin my new podcast, stop.>>Brian, you have a new
experience with Nord, you want to talk about it?
Let’s talk about it. [off guard laughter]>>We come out here on the deck and we just talk about Nord sometimes.>>So I usually read my
news from Google news. That’s the first thing I check everyday, but I didn’t realize
that it categorizes that to your location, right?>>Yes it does.
>>So, because I’m like, “attach me somewhere,” and sometimes the fastest
server is like in England is what it was this morning. So I saw all of the American
news through the lens of people living in England. They keep saying like, “What candidate Jeep Jop
says about Donald Trump…” And I’m like, “Who’s candidate Jeep Jock?” And I realize that they have
elections out in England.>>They do.>>It was amazing to be
automatically fed news from a totally different perspective.>>Yeah you don’t have to hunt for it. You just select and say, “Oh, I’m from this part of the globe.” And it says, “Okay, here’s what
your internet experience is like when “you’re in Scotland,
when you’re in Iceland, “when you’re in South America.”>>It’s fantastic and plus,
there is, of course, the security stuff. The only VPN to get five out of five,
perfect score at PC Mag.>>And it got through
the Great Wall of China. That’s not even right.>>The firew–>>The Great Firewall of China. I was about to say,
you’re thinking of David Copperfield.>>Yeah, that’s what it is. So, go to Nordvpn.com/rogue That’s R-O-G-U-E and get 75% off a three year plan It’s 2.99 per month and…>>Use that URL and you
get a extra month free. How about that.
>>How can you say no?>>Pretty rad, right?>>Don’t even tell me if you’re going to say no.
>>Who’s super cool, who’s your hook up? Come on. Who loves some VPNs?
>>And NordVPN. It’s us, and NordVPN.>>Just keep you doing you.
>>Yeah, we got you.>>Yeah. — CC BY BIZARRE MAGIC — [quietly]
>>JASON: Take your clothes off. [muffled laughter]
>>God dammit.>>It feels good, you can just surf, and not have to worry about a thing.
>>It’s the internet, it’s not appropriate.>>I do it.
>>It’s not going to be good. [radio static and wind] [defensively]
>>In my own home. I mean in Starbucks. Not the same Starbucks,
you’ll get kicked out. Okay, it’s a bus station. [chuckles]
It’s a bus station. [ashamed but relieved]